LIFE said: No. No one can. People who say they can are lying. There are far too many other factors in a guitars sound.
You're such a #### twat. If you ever gave reasons for your BS claims maybe you wouldn't sound like a 'tard. Ass.
YES. There are differences in woods. You can hear the differences but I think they are quite miniscule in my personal opinion. To me, I think alder makes the sound a bit brittle, whereas mahogany is the best all-around wood.
Basswood is good and it'll hold up as long as you treat it right.
Basically, don't listen to LIFE. He's a blow-hard who doesn't understand that the most basic element in a guitar's sound is wood and quality construction. Besides, if they were all the exact same and it was all just in the pickups, why not make #### guitars out of pine trees? Or make 'em all out of a cheap wood like agathis?